Library of Congress >> MARC >> Bibliographic >> 5XX >> 510

510 - Citation/References Note (R)

MARC 21 Bibliographic - full
October 2009

First Indicator Second Indicator
Coverage/location in source
0 - Coverage unknown
1 - Coverage complete
2 - Coverage is selective
3 - Location in source not given
4 - Location in source given

# - Undefined

Subfield Codes
  • $a - Name of source (NR)
  • $b - Coverage of source (NR)
  • $c - Location within source (NR)
  • $u - Uniform Resource Identifier (R)
  • $x - International Standard Serial Number (NR)
  • $3 - Materials specified (NR)
  • $6 - Linkage (NR)
  • $8 - Field link and sequence number (R)


Citations or references to published bibliographic descriptions, reviews, abstracts, or indexes of the content of the described item.

Used to specify where an item has been cited or reviewed. Citations or references may be given in a brief form (i.e., using generally recognizable abbreviations, etc.). The actual text of a published description is not recorded in field 510 but rather in field 520 (Summary, Etc. Note).

For books and music, this field contains references to published descriptions of the item (e.g., descriptions of rare materials recorded in a brief, standardized format) or reviews (e.g., reviews in professional literature).

For continuing resources, this field is used to specify publications in which a continuing resource has been indexed and/or abstracted and the dates of coverage, if known. The indexing and abstracting services referenced are primarily those issued as continuing resources. Certain monographic titles, particularly those that are standard reference tools in a subject area or that cover periods of time not included in continuing publications, may also be given in this field.

For unpublished visual materials or graphic items collectively controlled, this field contains references to published descriptions of the work or collection. Citations to reviews of projected visual materials are also recorded in this field.

For mixed materials, this field contains references to publications in which abstracts, citations, descriptions, or indexes of the described materials have appeared.

Note that field 510 is used when the indexing and/or review is external to the item represented by the bibliographic record. Field 555 (Cumulative Index/Finding Aids Note) is used when an index is an integral part of the item. When the title of the source of the index, abstract, review, etc. changes, a separate field 510 is used for each title. When coverage changes, thus requiring a different value in the first indicator, a new field 510 with appropriate dates is added to the record.

Field 510 is repeatable for multiple source citations.

Citation/references notes are usually displayed and/or printed with an introductory term or phrase that is generated as a display constant based on the first indicator value.



First Indicator - Coverage/location in source

Whether or not the field contains the specific location in the source cited. For continuing resources, indicates the type of coverage given the item by the abstracting and indexing service. The value also controls the generation of a display constant preceding the note.

0 - Coverage unknown

Abstracting and indexing coverage is not specified. Indexed by: may be generated for display.

1 - Coverage complete

Abstracting and indexing coverage includes references to all articles in a journal and/or all issues within each volume and is considered to provide complete coverage. Indexed in its entirety by: may be generated for display.

510 1#$aEducation index,$x0013-1385,$b1966-
[A serial that is indexed in its entirety.]
2 - Coverage is selective

Abstracting and indexing service does not include references to all articles in the periodical. Indexed selectively by: may be generated for display.

510 2#$aMoving picture world,$b1975-
3 - Location in source not given

Specific location (e.g., volume, page number) of a citation within the source is not given. References: may be generated for display.

510 3#$aLC Civil War maps
4 - Location in source given

Specific location (e.g., volume, page number) of a citation within the source is given in field 510. References: may be generated for display.

510 4#$aAlgae abstracts,$cv. 3, W73-11952
510 4#$aCase, A.E. Poetical miscellanies,$c440, 1b, 2c, 3b, 4-6
[A rare serial that has been cited in a bibliography.]

Second Indicator - Undefined

Undefined and contains a blank (#).


$a - Name of source

Name of the source in which the reference or citation appears. The name of the source may be given in either full cataloging form or as a conventionalized abbreviation, for example Evans for Evans, Charles. American bibliography.

Established forms of citations for bibliographies and catalogs used in cataloging rare materials are found in Standard Citation Forms for Published Bibliographies and Catalogs Used in Rare Book Cataloging.

510 3#$aBibliographie cartographique internationale
510 3#$aHiler, H. Bibl. of costume
510 4#$aTV guide (Philadelphia),$c112181, p. 48

Title of a source (e.g., Index Medicus) but not the name of an organization or company (e.g., National Library of Medicine). The key title is used when available. If there is no print publication, the commonly used form of name for the online database is used. In cases where both a print publication and an online database exist, the name from the print form of the publication is preferred.

510 0#$aIndustrial arts index
510 3#$aSchool library journal, June 1994
[Reference to a review of a bibliographic item]

$b - Coverage of source

Dates and/or volume designations of the serial with which the service began and ended coverage.

510 1#$aNexis,$bJan. 13, 1975-
510 1#$aIndex Medicus,$x0019-3879,$bv1n1, 1984-

$c - Location within source

Specific location of the citation or reference within the source (e.g., page number, item number, etc.). Note that the first indicator position contains value 4 (Location in source given) when subfield $c is present.

510 4#$aGoff,$cA-970
510 4#$aBM XV cent.,$cII, p. 346 (IB.5874)
510 4#$aSchramm,$cv. 4, p. 10, 50, and iii
510 4#$aLC Treasure maps (2nd ed.),$c13

$u - Uniform Resource Identifier

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that provides electronic access data in a standard syntax to an electronic bibliography cited or to the citation within an electronic bibliography. If the former, subfield $u follows subfield $a (Name of source); if the latter, $u follows subfield $c (Location within source).

245 03$aAn abstract of the remarkable passages in the life of a private gentleman.
510 4#$aEvans$u$c5375
[The 510 $u contains the URI for the record describing Charles Evans’s American bibliography.]
100 0#$aAbraham a Sancta Clara,$d1644-1709.
245 13$aJudas der Ertz-Schelm, für ehrliche Leuth, ...
510 4#$aVD 17$c12:196157F$u*
[The 510 $u contains a persistent URL to the record for Abraham's Judas der Ertz-Schelm in the Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts (VD 17) database.]
245 00$aJAMA :$bthe journal of the American Medical Association.
510 1#$aPubMed$u$bv187n13,Mar.28, 1964-
[The 510 $u contains the URL for the bibliographic information where the serial is cited.]

$x - International Standard Serial Number

510 2#$aChemical abstracts,$x0009-2258

$3 - Materials specified

Part of the described material to which the field applies.

510 4#$331911 Arctic field notebook$aDay, Harold. "Statistical Methods for Population Transport Estimation," Journal of Ecological Studies,$cvol. 7, 1974, p. 187

$6 - Linkage

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$8 - Field link and sequence number

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.


Punctuation - A comma is placed usually at the end of subfield $a, $b, $c, and/or $x if another subfield follows. Field 510 ends with a hyphen if one is present at the end of subfield $b; otherwise the field does not end with a mark of punctuation, unless the field ends with an abbreviation, initial/letter, or other data that ends with a mark of punctuation. The system may supply a period at the end of the field if desired. When multiple 510 fields occur with the same indicator value the data may be reformatted into one note with semicolons as separators for display.

Content designated fields:
510 4#$aCopinger,$c5747
510 4#$aGoff,$cT-90
Display example:
References: Copinger, 5747; Goff, T-90.

When the reference note consists of a name/title citation, a period and space follow the author's name.

510 4#$aStreeter, T.W. Texas,$c997

Initial Articles - Initial articles are generally omitted in the title and author/title citations.

Display Constants - Introductory terms or phrases such as References:, Indexed by:, etc. are not carried in the MARC record. They may be system generated as display constants associated with the first indicator value.

First indicator Display constant
0 Indexed by:
1 Indexed in its entirety by:
2 Indexed selectively by:
3 References:
4 References:

The initialism ISSN followed by a space may also be system generated as a display constant associated with the presence of subfield $x.

Content designated field:
510 1#$aEducation index,$x0013-1385
Display example:
Indexed in its entirety by: Education index, ISSN 0013-1385


$u - Uniform Resource Identifier [NEW, 2009]

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